Pleural plaque and mesothelioma are both caused by exposure to asbestos. The long-term effects of this exposure are vastly different and present as two extremely opposite diagnosis based on the type and duration of exposure.
Mesothelioma vs. Pleural Plaque Overview
Mesothelioma is caused by small fibers released from asbestos entering the body by air or orally. After these fibers are ingested, they become trapped in organ tissue and are almost incapable of being removed naturally. Cellular changes from the asbestos fibers include scarring, genetic damage and inflammation that can lead to cancer, which is often diagnosed 10 to 50 years later.
Pleural plaque is not a form of cancer. Having pleural plaques does not mean that patients have, or will go on to get, a more serious disease.
The pleura surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the rib cage with a two-layered membrane. Exposure to asbestos thickens the areas of this membrane and accumulates a chalky material, which is called pleural plaque.
Differences Between Mesothelioma and Pleural Plaque
Mesothelioma originally starts as small nodule tumors scattered in the mesothelial lining. Eventually, they grow together to form a sheath-like tumor surrounding the lung or other organs. It can also present itself in the lungs, heart, the lining of the abdomen and testes.
Mesothelioma under an MRI scan reveals diseased tissue (tumors) through the rate of energy release. MRI scans align the water molecules in a person’s body with a magnetic field that are disrupted by a second radio frequency electromagnetic field to encourage the protons to release energy that is detected by the scanner. Additional magnetic fields can be utilized in the scan to capture images of the tumor to recognize which form of cancer is present and how far it has spread.
Pleural Plaque is almost always asymptomatic, but the knowledge of its presence can cause emotional and physiological effects that may produce symptoms that could include:
- Labored or difficulty breathing
- Chest tightness
- Grating sensation in the chest
While physical signs and symptoms are rare, patients and loved ones should be aware of the psychological factors this diagnosis may have even though it doesn’t mean there are signs of a more serious disease.
What is Pleural Plaque?
The pleura surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the rib cage with a two-layered membrane. Exposure to asbestos thickens the areas of this membrane and accumulates a chalky material, which is called pleural plaque. This is not a form of cancer.
Having pleural plaques does not mean that patients have, or will go on to get, a more serious disease.
Being exposed to asbestos, however, does increase the risk of developing serious lung conditions like:
- Lung cancer
Scientific evidence has not shown that having pleural plaques increases the risk of developing other serious conditions, and until told otherwise by medical professionals, patients shouldn’t worry about that possibility when diagnosed with pleural plaque.
Diagnosing Mesothelioma vs Pleural Plaque
A mesothelioma diagnosis can be confused with lung cancer, as they have similar sets of symptoms. A history of asbestos exposure is an indicator for doctors to look for mesothelioma. Most often, doctors identify mesothelioma because of other problems the disease causes.
Early warning signs include:
- A cough that doesn’t go away
- Shortness of breath
- Unexplained loss of appetite or weight loss
- Swelling of the face or neck veins
- Blood in mucus that is coughed up from the lungs
- Trouble breathing or swallowing
During patient examinations, doctors review genetics and medical history to figure out if more tests should be ordered and deciphered by specialists.
Imaging tests for a mesothelioma diagnosis can involve:
- Bone scans
- Computed tomography (CT/CAT scan)
- Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan
Other lab tests, including biopsies and blood tests, take cells from the lung to determine the diagnosis by scrutiny under a microscope. While looking at the images from all scans and tests, mesothelioma specialists will rule out the possibility of lung cancer in cell growth if a history of asbestos exposure is present by the growth pattern of the cells.
Simple exposure to asbestos does not mean that mesothelioma or other serious diseases should be the assumed diagnosis. Pleural plaque, for example, occurs when patients have been exposed to asbestos. It is not, however, a form of cancer and should not be assumed that patients will later develop more serious diseases.
Diagnosis of pleural plaque generally happens 20 to 40 years after initial exposure to asbestos and its prevalence is related to how long the patient was exposed to the asbestos. Patients without chest problems normally don’t need a CT scan or chest X-ray unless it is recommended by a doctor. In most cases, exposure to a CT scan and X-rays is riskier than being diagnosed with a pleural plaque.
Treating Mesothelioma vs Pleural Plaque
Treatments for mesothelioma vary based on different factors that specialists and tests will recommend. Most often, more than one form of treatment will be used based on the stage of the cancerous growth, lung function, a person’s overall health and specific traits of the subtype of mesothelioma. The treatment order or combination provided to patients is also determined by these factors.
Options for mesothelioma treatment based on specialist recommendations could include:
- Surgery: Surgeons can physically resect (remove) mesothelioma tumors.
- Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy can target mesothelioma tumor with high-powered rays, shrinking them and killing off cells.
- Chemotherapy: Circulating anti-cancer drugs through the bloodstream kills off mesothelioma cells in its path.
- Palliative treatments: Therapies that improve quality of life by easing symptoms are considered palliative treatments for mesothelioma.
Pleural plaque does not require treatment. For some patients, however, the psychological effects of being diagnosed should be treated. After being diagnosed with pleural plaque, you or a loved one might experience anxiety or symptoms of stress from the knowledge of the diagnosis. Please talk to your doctor to receive options to assist in dealing with this.
In mesothelioma studies, statistics show that smokers that quit tend to have a better outcome after diagnosis than those that don’t. In patients with pleural plaque, smokers should seek help to quit to help reduce the chances of a smoking-related lung disease such as lung cancer.
Getting a Second Opinion on Mesothelioma vs Pleural Plaque
A second opinion on pleural plaque or mesothelioma may be useful in certain cases. Since this is a non-life threatening disease and treatment is not needed, a second opinion may help patients for peace of mind psychologically.
For more information on seeking a second opinion on your diagnosis, contact Mesothelioma Help Now today to speak to our Patient Advocates.